Flora ProActiv


  1. World Health Organization: Global health observatory data. Available at: http://www.who.int/gho/ncd/risk_factors/blood_pressure_prevalence/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  2. ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidemias. European Heart Journal, 2011;32:1769–1818.
  3. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies on a request from the European Commission and a similar request from France in relation to the authorisation procedure for health claims on plant sterols/stanols and lowering/reducing blood LDL-cholesterol pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The EFSA Journal (2009) 1175, 1-9.
  4. Commission Regulation (EU) No. 384/2010. Official Journal of the European Union, 2010. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2010.113.01.0006.01.ENG. Accessed June 2015.
  5. Panagiotakos DB, et al. Ten-year (2002–2012) cardiovascular disease incidence and all-cause mortality, in urban Greek population: The ATTICA Study. International Journal of Cardiology 2015; Volume 180 , 178 - 184
  6. World Health Organisation: Chronic diseases and health promotion. Available at: http://www.who.int/chp/chronic_disease_report/part1/en/index11.html. Accessed June 2015.
  7. Buttar HS. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases: Role of exercise, dietary interventions, obesity and smoking cessation. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2005; 10(4): 229–249.
  8. World Heart Federation: Cardiovascular disease risk factors fact sheet. Available at: http://www.world-heart-federation.org/press/fact-sheets/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors/. Accessed June 2015.
  9. World Health Organization: Fact sheet No 317, Updated January 2015. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  10. Weissglas-Volkov D, Pajukanta P. Genetic causes of high and low serum HDL-cholesterol. J Lipid Res. 2010; 51(8): 2032–2057.
  11. Das SK, Elbein SC. The Genetic Basis of Type 2 Diabetes Cellscience. 2006; 2(4): 100–131.
  12. Centers for disease control and prevention: High blood pressure. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/family_history.htm. Accessed June 2015.
  13. World Health Organization: Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Available at: http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/9789241599979/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  14. National Institute of Health website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hdw/atrisk. Accessed June 2015.
  15. Hu FB, Willett WC. Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. JAMA. 2002; 288(20): 2569–2578.
  16. Djoussé L, Gaziano LM. Alcohol Consumption and Heart Failure: A Systematic Review Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008; 10(2): 117–120.
  17. World Health Organization: Global status report on alcohol and health 2014. Available at: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  18. O'Keefe JH, Bybee KA, Lavie CJ . Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edged sword. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2007; 50 (11): 1009–1014.
  19. European Guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (version 2016). Available at: http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/37/29/2315.
  20. Πηγή: Ελληνική Καρδιολογική Εταιρεία
  21. How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease: A Report of the Surgeon General. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US); Office on Smoking and Health (US). Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US); 2010.
  22. World Health Organization: Q&As on hypertension. Available at: http://www.who.int/features/qa/82/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  23. World Health Organization: Global atlas on cardiovascular disease prevention and control. Available at: http://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/publications/atlas_cvd/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  24. OECD (2016), Overweight or obese population (indicator). doi: 10.1787/86583552-en (Accessed on 13 September 2016)
  25. Word health organization: obesity and overweight Fact sheet No 311, updated Jnauary 2015. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. Accessed June 2015.
  26. NHS choices. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Diabetes-type2/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed August 2015.
  27. Liatis, Stavros et al.The prevalence and treatment patterns of diabetes in the Greek population based on real-world data from the nation-wide prescription database. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 Aug;118:162-7.
  28. Krauss RM. Lipids and Lipoproteins in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27(6) 1496–1504..
  29. World Health Organization: Non communicable disease report. 2008. Available at: http://www.who.int/nmh/publications/ncd_report_chapter1.pdf. Accessed June 2015.
  30. 2013 ACC/AHA Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults. Available at: http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/129/25_suppl_2/S1.full.pdf. Accessed June 2015.
  31. Martin MJ, Hulley SB, Browner WS, Kuller LH, Wentworth D. Serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and mortality: implications from a cohort of 361,662 men. Lancet. 1986 25;2(8513):933-6.
  32. Santosa S, Varady K, AbuMweis S, Jones P. Physiological and therapeutic factors affecting cholesterol metabolism: Does a reciprocal relationship between cholesterol absorption and synthesis really exist? Life Sciences. 2007; (80) 505–514.
  33. Web MD: Cholesterol and Artery Plaque Buildup. Available at: http://www.webmd.com/cholesterol-management/cholesterol-and-artery-plaque-buildup. Accessed June 2015.
  34. 2016 EHJ doi/10.1093/eurheartj/ehw106.
  35. Ras R, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA. LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr. 2014; 112(2): 214–219.
  36. Normen L, Johnsson M, Andersson H, van Gameran Y, Dutta P. Plant sterols in vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in Sweden. Eur J Nutr 1999;38:84–89.
  37. Normen L, Bryngelsson S, Johnsson M, Evheden P et al. The phytosterol content of some cereal foods commonly consumed in Sweden and in the Netherlands. J Food Comp Analysis 2002;15(6):693–704.
  38. AbuMweis SS, Jones PJ. Cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008;10(6):467–472.
  39. Demonty I, Ras RT, van der Knaap HC, Meijer L, Zock PL, Geleijnse JM, Trautwein EA. The effect of plant sterols on serum triglyceride concentrations is dependent on baseline concentrations: a pooled analysis of 12 randomised controlled trials. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52(1):153–160.
  40. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant sterols/stanols and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA Journal 2012;10(5):2693.
  41. Commission Regulation (EU) No. 686/2014. Official Journal of the European Union, 2014. Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2014.182.01.0027.01.ENG. Accessed June 2015.
  42. Gylling H, Plat J, Turley S et al. Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis. 2014; 232(2):346–360.
  43. Scholle JM, Baker WL, Talati R, Coleman CI. The Effect of Adding Plant Sterols or Stanols to Statin Therapy in Hypercholesterolemic Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Journal of American College of Nutrition. 2009; 28: 517–524.
  44. Edwards JE, Moore RA. Statins in hypercholesterolaemia: a dose-specific meta-analysis of lipid changes in randomised, double blind trials. BMC Family Practice. 2003;4:1–19.
  45. Cleghorn CL, Skeaff CM, Mann J, Chisholm A. Plant sterol-enriched spread enhances the cholesterol-lowering potential of a fat-reduced diet. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003; 57(1):170–176.
  46. Chen SC, Judd JT, Kramer M, Meijer GW, Clevidence BA, Baer DJ. Phytosterol intake and dietary fat reduction are independent and additive in their ability to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol. Lipids. 2009; 44:273–281.
  47. Jones PJH, Ntanios FY, Raeini-Sarjaz M, Vanstone M. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a sitostanol-containing phytosterol mixture with a prudent diet in hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999; 69: 1144–1150.
  48. Katan MB, Grundy SM, Jones P, Law M, Miettinen T, Paoletti R; Stresa Workshop Participants. Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels. Mayo Clin Proc. 2003; 78(8): 965–978.
  49. Roberts WC. The rule of 5 and the rule of 7 in lipid lowering by stain drugs. Am J Cardiol 1997; 80: 106–107.
  50. Joint British Societies' consensus recommendations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (JBS3). Available at: http://www.guidelines.co.uk/cardiovascular_bmj_jbs3_jul14#.VcjAlPm6e70. Accessed August 2015.
  51. Weihrauch JL, Gardner JM. Sterol content of foods of plant origin. J Am Diet Assoc. 1978; 73(1):39–47.
  52. NHS: Physical activity guidelines for adults. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/fitness/Pages/physical-activity-guidelines-for-adults.aspx. Accessed August 2015.
  53. H F J Hendriks, E J Brink, G W Meijer, H M G Princen and F Y Ntanios. Safety of long-term consumption of plant sterol esters-enriched spread. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003; 57, 681–692.
  54. Eussen S, de Jong N, Rompelberg CJM et al. Dose-dependent cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterol/phytostanol-enriched margarine in statin users and statin non-users under free-living conditions. Public Health Nutrition. 2011; 14(10): 1823–1832.
  55. Wolfs M1, de Jong N, Ocké MC, Verhagen H, Monique Verschuren WM. Effectiveness of customary use of phytosterol/-stanol enriched margarines on blood cholesterol lowering. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006; 44(10):1682–1688.
  56. Schuit AJ, Wendel-Vos GC, Verschuren WM, Ronckers ET, Ament A, Van Assema P, Van Ree J, Ruland EC. Effect of 5-year community intervention Hartslag Limburg on cardiovascular risk factors. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30(3):237-242.
  57. «Πρόγραμμα μείωσης χοληστερόλης 3 εβδομάδων του Becel ProActiv- Δεδομένα υπό επεξεργασία για δημοσίευση»
  58. Kriengsinyos W, Wangtong A, Komindr S. Serum Cholesterol Reduction Efficacy of Biscuits with Added Plant Stanol Ester. Cholesterol. 2015; 353164.
  59. De Smet E, Mensink P, Plat J. Effects of plant sterols and stanols on intestinal cholesterol metabolism: Suggested mechanisms from past to present. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. 2012; 56:1058–1072.
  60. Willems JI, Blommaert MAE, Trautwein EA. Results from a post-launch monitoring survey on consumer purchases of foods with added phytosterols in five European countries. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013; 62: 48–53.
  61. Normen AL, Brants HA, Voorrips LE, Andersson HA, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74(1):141-148.
  62. Andersson SW, Skinner J, Ellegard L, Welch AA, Bingham S, Mulligan A, Andersson H, Khaw KT. Intake of dietary plant sterols is inversely related to serum cholesterol concentration in men and women in the EPIC Norfolk population: a cross-sectional study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004;58(10):1378-1385.
  63. Valsa LM, Lemstrom A, Ovaskainen ML, Lampi AM, Toivo J, Korhonen T, Piironen V. Estimation of plant sterol and cholesterol intake in Finland: quality of new values and their effect on intake. Br J Nutr. 2004;92(4):671-678(8).
  64. Plat J, van Onselen EN, van Heugten MM, Mensink RP. Effects on serum lipids, lipoproteins and fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of consumption frequency of margarines and shortenings enriched with plant stanol esters. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000; 54(9):671–677.
  65. Doornbos AM, Meynen EM, Duchateau GS, van der Knaap HC, Trautwein EA. Intake occasion affects the serum cholesterol lowering of a plant sterol-enriched single-dose yoghurt drink in mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006; 60(3):325–333.
  66. Keszthelyi D1, Knol D, Troost FJ, van Avesaat M, Foltz M, Masclee AA. Time of ingestion relative to meal intake determines gastrointestinal responses to a plant sterol-containing yoghurt drink. Eur J Nutr. 2013; 52(4):1417–1420.
  67. Gylling H, et al., Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, Atherosclerosis. 2014 Feb;232(2):346-60. doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.11.043.
  68. Elisaf M. et al., Updated guidelines of the Hellenic Society of Atherosclerosis for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia. Hellenic Journal of Atherosclerosis. 2014 5(3):151-163.